"HE WHO LOVES PRACTICE WITHOUT THEORY IS LIKE THE SAILOR WHO BOARDS SHIP WITHOUT A RUDDER AND COMPASS AND NEVER KNOWS WHERE HE MAY CAST".
Leonardo Da Vinci
Friday, March 21, 2014
Stanford Takes Away A Grad's MBA Degree
Source: John A. Byrne-Fast Company & Business Week Former Editor
For the first time ever, Stanford University's Graduate School of Business today (March 5) confirmed that a 2003 graduate of the most selective MBA program in the U.S. no longer has a degree because he was admitted under "false pretenses."
The decision to nullify the degree of hedge fund trader Mathew Martoma follows his conviction last month of insider trading charges. "Martoma does not have a Stanford MBA," confirmed Stanford GSB spokesperson Barbara Buell.
The school ostensibly did not strip the former employee of SAC Capital Advisors of the degree because of his Feb. 6th conviction, however, but rather because he failed to disclose that he was thrown out of Harvard Law School for doctoring his grade transcript and sending the forged document to federal judges in search of a job.
Two years after being dismissed from Harvard, Martoma had changed his name and successfully applied to Stanford's business school. But he apparently covered up the fact that he had been kicked out of Harvard. The decision by Stanford indicates that Marie Mookini, then director of MBA admissions at Stanford, did not know that the applicant was expelled. Mookini, now an MBA admissions consultant based in Palo Alto, declined comment.
"What makes this possible is not that he was a convicted felon, but that he was admitted under false pretenses," a faculty member told the Journal.
Stanford sent Martoma a letter in February seeking an explanation about statements he made on his original MBA application and gave him a two-week deadline for a response, according to the newspaper. Martoma's lawyers asked for a two-week extension which was granted by Stanford. When the new deadline ran out on Friday without a response, Stanford decided to pull Martoma's degree.
Though Stanford has consistently declined direct comment on the Martoma case, citing privacy laws, the school does make clear that applicants who are admitted to its MBA program on false pretenses can have their degrees revoked. Most observers assume that Martoma, who legally changed his name from Ajai Mathew Thomas to Mathew Martoma when he applied to Stanford, failed to admit that he was thrown out of Harvard Law School for a disciplinary reason.
“Federal law (FERPA) prohibits Stanford from discussing the specific academic status of a former student," says spokesperson Buell. "However, we take very seriously any violation of the integrity of our admissions process. When there is evidence that any misrepresentation has been made, Stanford’s policy and practice is to review the matter carefully. Determining the validity of the evidence is undertaken immediately, but can take time. When a review is completed, Stanford's policy provides it can revoke an offer of acceptance and a degree, if it was found that an individual gained admission through false pretenses. "
Do you agree with the decision? send in your comments and share for others to join
It's simple, influence matters. It matters in your job and your private life. In fact, influence is part of every human interaction. Just think of parents influencing their children, political or religious leaders influencing their followers, CEOs influencing employees, sales people influencing customers, friends influencing each other and the list goes on...
Influential people have an edge over others who are not influential because with influence comes the ability to make others listen to what you have to say. Influence gives people the power to change beliefs and drive actions and behaviours in others and this is important in all aspects of life, whether you are a CEO of a global company, a sales rep, a football coach or someone that is simply trying to get friends to do or believe something.
So what makes us influential then? Whether anyone is seen as influential or not depends on a number of factors including:
Do we trust and like the person?
Is the person authoritative and respected?
Will being influenced by the person help us be more successful?
The 10,000 Dollar question now is: How do we know whether we have this influential power or not? It's tricky because it is not always the charismatic and extroverted leaders that are the biggest influencers. Wouldn't it be great if we could measure how influential we actually are and maybe compare scores to see who is more or less influential in your company, among your friends or in your industry? The good news is that you can.
One way to measure and quantify your influence is by tracking your influence in social media. We all know that the way we interact with friends, customers or employees is rapidly changing. We use tools such as Facebook, Twitter or LinkedIn to share opinions and ideas, we 'like' people's posts, re-tweet status up-dates and recommend or endorse others on LinkedIn. The beauty with social media is that we can use all of this to calculate how influential someone is.
You might think that's not for me. Why should I care about my online influence? The reason why it matters is that companies are now using social media influence scores to recruit, promote or performance manage employees. Other companies use social media influence scores to put customers into certain categories that might mean you get preferential treatment or perks if you are particularly influential.
It is my job to help companies find the right data and measures that help them make better informed decisions about key business questions. And increasingly I put social media influence scores into the equation to help answer questions like:
Who are our most valuable customers?
How do I select the best sales person for my company?
Which PR person should best represent our business?
Where should I focus my lobbying activities?
How do I prioritise customers in my call centre queue?
There are a number of different social media influence metrics out there but the Klout score seems to have an edge over others. Klout is the self-proclaimed standard for measuring social media influence. It uses social media analytics from Twitter, Facebook, Google+,LinkedIn, Foursquare, Wikipedia, and Instagram to generate a score between 1 and 100. Klout defines influence as "the ability to drive action". On their website they state that "When you share something on social media or in real life and people respond, that’s influence. The more influential you are, the higher your Klout Score." For example, US president Barack Obama has currently got a Klout score of 99 and Justin Bieber's Klout score is 92.
The problem with any such metric is that it is not perfect and will never be a complete representation of someone's actual influence. For example, prior to some recent algorithm changes, Justin Bieber and other celebrities had more 'Klout' than President Obama. Or as another example: I am one of LinkedIn's original influencers and regularly write posts that get hundreds of thousand reads and thousands of comments, however, the Klout algorithm does not yet take that into account. Of course, like all measures Klout is only as good as the information is it based on. At the same time Klout is working hard to constantly evolve theunderpinning algorithm to make the score more representative of the actual level of influence. I am fascinated by watching the evolution of these new types of metrics.
Let me share with you some real life examples of how some of my customers are now using the Klout score:
One of my clients is a fashion retail business that particularly targets teenagers with trendy clothes. This particular retailer has always tried to recruit the most popular teenagers to work in their shop because they know that they will bring in a lot of customers.In the past they had to guess how 'influential' or popular particular candidates are based on what they wrote in their application form or what they said in the interviews. Today, the retailer is using Klout to narrow down the applicants.
One of my telecom customers is now using the Klout score (among other measures) to build up a better image of who their customers are. For example, a recent analysis identified that 'influential' customers are more likely to churn and that if they do decide to leave for a competitor many in their network will do the same. This information is very valuable because it allows the company to focus on the customers that are more likely to leave and take actions to prevent this.
One of my car manufacturer clients is now using the Klout score to automatically customise the user experience of their corporate Facebook page.
So here are the issues. Klout is a great way to quantify and score your level of influence. At the same time it is not (and never will be) perfect. In the absence of anything better it is a good way of shining some light on someone's influence and many of my customers do so. However, I also see some alarm bells going off in my head when I think of how this sort of measure could be used in the future. If companies are now using the Klout score as a way to recruit new people or assess the effectiveness of sales staff, and if companies use the Klout score to differentiate customer service then I am also getting worried. Will people with a higher influence score get preferential treatments? Will this encourage people to play a game and find ways to artificially 'boost' their score? Are influence scores good or bad for society? Do you see it as just another way to get more transparency and data-driven insights or do you see it as dangerous and misleading? Please let me know what you think!
Analytics is something any manager, leader or in fact anyone should know about. Not only because analytics is one of the biggest buzzwords around at the moment but because it will be a game changer in all aspects of life. In today’s data-driven world analytics changes everything, not just in business, but also in fields like sports, healthcare and government. It is hard to think of any aspect of life that won’t be affected by analytics. We have seen books on analytics become global best sellers and the people who are able to apply analytics (sometimes called data scientists) are hailed as having the sexiest job of the 21st Century. So, what really is analytics?
Basically, analytics refers to our ability to collect and use data to generate insights that inform fact-based decision-making. Advances in information technology and a complete datafication of our world now mean we have (or will have very soon) data and insights on everything. This gives us unprecedented opportunities that will transform business, sports, healthcare and government. Let’s first look at the datafication of our world and then at some examples of how analytics are used to turn data into insights.
Datafication – More Data Every Day
Day after day our world is filled with more and more data and the pace of the data growth is accelerating week by week. Data on every aspect of our life is now tracked and stored in databases and analytics allows us to turn this data into insights. Here are just some examples that illustrate the datafication of our world:
We increasingly record of our conversations: Emails are stored in corporate databases, our social media up-dates are filed and phone conversations are digitized and stored.
Companies and organisations are creating vast repositories of data keeping a digital record of everything that is going on: Just think of all the data generated daily in our financial systems, stock control systems, ordering systems, sales transaction systems and HR systems. These data depots are growing by the minute.
Our activities are tracked: Most things we do in a digital world leave a data trail. For example, our bowser logs what we are searching for and what websites we visit, websites log how we click through them, as well as what and when we buy, share or like something. When we read digital books or listen to digital music the devices will collect (and share) data on what we are reading and listening to and how often we do so.
We increasingly generate data using the ever-growing amounts of sensors we are now surrounded by: Our smart phones track the location of where we are and how fast we are moving, there are sensors in our oceans to track temperatures and currents, there are sensors in our cars that monitor our driving, there are sensors on packaging and pallets that track goods as they are shipped along supply chains, etc.
Wearable devices collect data: Smart watches, Google Glass and pedometers collect data. For example I wear an Up band that tells me how many steps I have taken, the calories I have burnt each day as well as how well I have slept each night, etc.
A lot of photos and videos are now digitally captured. Just think of the millions of hours of CCTV footage captured every day. In addition, we take more videos on our smart phones and digital cameras leading to around 100 hours of videos being up-loaded to YouTube every minute and something like 200,000 photos added to Facebook every 60 seconds.
Internet-enabled devices self-generate and share data. Smart TVs for example are able to track what you are watching, for how long and even detect how many people sit in front of the TV.
More data is made publicly available. For instance, weather data is now shared by Met Offices and governments are releasing censor data or land registry data. Also, think of all the data Google collects and makes accessible through tools such as Google Trends or Google Maps.
I guess you are getting the point by now – there is a data explosion happening right now and all of this data is the fuel for analytics.
We are not only generating vastly more data but our ability to harness and analyse this data has improved massively over recent years. We can now analyse large volumes of fast moving data from different data sources to gain insights that were never possible before. Analyzing large and messy data sets is often referred to as ‘Big Data’ or ‘Big Data Analytics’, which have become buzz words in their own right. Different types of analytics approaches allow us to analyse numbers, text, photos and even voice and video sequences. Let’s look at some practical examples of how analytics are applied in practice today.
Sport: Analytics is widely used to improve the performance of athletes, sports stars as well as you and I. Here are a few real examples:
You can now get a baseball with over 200 in-built sensors that gives players detailed feedback on their performance. InfoMotion Sports Technologies together with researchers form the University of Michigan are refining a smart ball that tracks and analyses shooting skills and ball-handling mechanics.
Smartphone Apps such as Run Keeper or Nike + Running use the in-built sensors in your phone so you can track and analyse your own running performance, measuring split times, calories burnt, etc.
Olympic cyclists use bikes that are fitted with sensors on their pedals that collect data on how much acceleration every push on the pedal generates. This kind of data provides detailed insights into actual performance and how to improve it.
In tennis we use a system called SlamTracker that records player performance providing real-time statistics and comprehensive match analytics.
Finally, we have all seen Moneyball – a film based on the real live story of Billie Bean - general manager at the Oklahoma As. He used analytics to identify talent that talent scouts using traditional methods were not able to spot. This allowed him to outsmart much richer teams in Major League Baseball.
Healthcare: Analytics are currently completely transforming healthcare. Have a look at these examples:
A hospital unit that looks after premature and sick babies is applying real time analytics based on a recording of every breath and every heartbeat of all babies in their unit. It then analyses the data to identify patterns. Based on the analysis the system can now predict infections 24hrs before the baby shows any visible symptoms. This allows early intervention and treatment that is so vital in fragile babies.
We can now use powerful analytics to decode human DNA in a fraction of time it used to take – today it takes just one day to unravel the entire DNA sequence of a human being. With increasing volumes of decoded DNAs come improved insights and powerful predictive capabilities. We can more precisely predict likelihoods of getting certain diseases, which in turn can lead to preventative actions and early interventions. We can also better customise treatments for diseases such as cancer because the DNA code will give physicians information about the most effective ways to treat tumours.
Love: Love is an important element of human happiness and I guess we all want to find our soulmate. But how do we find the right one? Even here analytics can help. Take dating site eHarmony. Its founder studied thousands of married couples and based on the findings created a predictive analytics model that takes into account twenty-nine different variables relating to different personality traits, behaviours and social skills. Each person who signs up for the site has to complete a comprehensive profile questionnaire which will then provide the data for the analytics model to find you a match. This way eHarmony is able to match you with someone that might not fall into your usual dating pattern but where the data suggests a good match. Other match-making sites use different analytical models. Take Perfectmatch.com as another example, their analytics model looks for ‘complementary’ personality traits.
Smart Homes: Our homes are becoming smarter with the ever-growing amount of devices that collect and analyse data. For example, the scales in my bedroom track air quality and temperature levels in addition to my weight, of course, and send this data to my smart phone. My fridge is connected to the internet and will alert me to any faults (e.g. if I forgot to close the door properly). The amount of smart devices will increase significantly over the coming years and analytics will enable us to run smarter, more efficient homes and cities where the central heating system adapts to your patterns of life and where your fridge calls out the service engineer when there is a problem.
Crime Prevention: Fighting crime increasingly relies on analytics to identify and predict criminal activity. Take these examples:
Our credit card companies monitor our transactions in real time and analytics engines will detect any ‘unusual’ and potentially fraudulent transactions and ‘freeze’ your card before any more damage can be done.
The police and federal agencies use data analytics to predict terrorist activities.
Many police forces across the U.S. rely on sensors and analytics to automatically detect and precisely locate things like gunfire. Using tools such as ShotSpotter allows them to respond to any gun incident immediately without the need for anyone to report it. In fact, using this type of analytics police forces realised that 80-90% of gunfire is never reported.
Business: Of course analytics are widely used in business. This is the domain I operate in and I help companies create analytics strategies to ensure they get the insight they need to inform business decision-making and improve performance. Here are just a few of the endless business examples I could share:
Many of my clients can now pinpoint their marketing efforts by using analytics on purchase data. Loyalty card or credit card information can be used to identify patterns of behaviour. For example, when a woman becomes pregnant her buying patterns change significantly. Supermarkets can now very safely predict that a woman is pregnant and even in what trimester she is. This can then be used for targeted marketing to cash in on the ‘nesting’ phase when parents spend a lot of money on baby accessories etc.
Retailers can use analytics to optimize their stock. Traditionally, shops would analyze which items sell the most and stock them. Modern analytics go far beyond that. For example, one of my clients identified that a particular stock item didn’t sell very often but the people that came in to buy it were big spenders. Therefore was important to always have this item in stock.
Companies optimise their supply chain performance using analytics. Data from sensors on their trucks or pallets allows them to identify the most optimal delivery route (also taking into account traffic predictions and weather conditions).
Another client of mine, a leading telecom company, has developed analytics models to predict customer satisfaction and potential customer churn. Based on phone and text patterns the company was able to classify customers into different categories. The analytics showed that people in one specific customer category was much more likely to cancel their contract and move to a competitor than people in any other category. Further analytics now help the telecom company to closely monitor the satisfaction levels of these clients and prioritise preventative actions.
A large services firm is now able to use analytics to predict that employees are thinking about leaving the company simply based on their usage patterns of sites like LinkedIn, Dice or Monster. Again, this allows them to intervene before the employee actually takes the step and leaves.
There are so many other examples but I hope that this article provides a solid overview of what analytics is and how it is transforming every aspect of our lives. Let me know if you found it useful and remember to ‘like’, ‘share’ and comment! Is there anything you would add? Any concerns or examples to share? Please do so…
Voted one of the most influential business ideas ever presented in the Harvard Business Review the Balanced Scorecard enjoys global popularity. There are some management tools that seem to have enduring appeal and the Balanced Scorecard, or BSC for short, is one of those. Over the past 20 years it has seen adoption rates soar. At the same time I have to say that as a tool the BSC is still widely misunderstood and misused by managers.
I have developed over 1,000 scorecards for clients from across the globe including many blue chip companies, government organisations as well as small and medium size corporations. Based on that experience I believe that the BSC is one of the most powerful management tools ever invented. However, I also think that the majority of scorecards in use today are not only useless but often dangerously counter-productive. So let’s once and for all look at what a good BSC is and the key pitfalls to avoid.
A BSC is a strategy execution tool that, at the most basic level, helps companies to:
Clarify strategy - articulate and communicate their business priorities and objectives
Monitor progress - measure to what extent the priorities and strategic objectives are being delivered
Define and manage action plans – ensure activities and initiatives are in place to deliver the priorities and strategic objectives.
I often use a shipping analogy to explain the importance. Just think of an old fashioned Viking ship that has rowing crews along each side. The first thing we need for a successful voyage is a plan. The captain and crew would map out the sailing route detailing how they will sail from their departure port to their destination, outlining the key milestones along the journey. The second thing they need are navigation instruments that help them understand where they are on their journey. These are especially important once the ship has left the harbour and is sailing in the open ocean. Without reliable navigation they would be completely lost. Finally they need to ensure the rowing crew takes the appropriate actions to move the boat forward in a coordinated manner and adjust course when needed.
Exactly the same applies to companies. They need a map of where they want to go and how they intent to get there. They need performance indicators to understand how well they are doing against their plan. And finally they need to manage the initiatives, projects and action plans that will help them achieve their plan. The BSC has been designed by Robert Kaplan and David Norton to do exactly that and contains the following three distinctive components:
1. The first and most important component of a BSC is a so-called ‘Strategy Map’ that visually maps the key strategic objectives of a company on a single page (a bit like the sailing route in my shipping example). A Strategy Map shows the overall destination as well as they key objectives and priorities a company must deliver along the way. The strategic objectives are usually mapped along four perspectives, which support each other (see below):
Financial Perspective – outlining the financial objectives
Customer Perspective – outlining the objectives related to customers and the market
Internal Process Perspective – outlining the internal business process objectives
Learning and Growth Perspective – outlining the objectives related to employees, culture and information system
Mapping out how the objectives in each perspective support each other is one of the big benefits of a Strategy Map. Instead of listing strategic objectives in a seemingly unrelated manner, the Strategy Map depicts how each objective supports others and how they all help to reach the ultimate destination.
2. The second component of a BSC are Key Performance Indicators that allow companies to measure and monitor progress against their most important strategic objectives (outlined in their Strategy Map). Key Performance Indicators, or KPIs for short, are the vital navigation instruments for managers. Each KPI needs to be defined well and include targets or benchmarks.
3. The third component of a BSC is an Action Plan that ensures the right projects, programmes or initiatives are in place to deliver each of the strategic objectives on the Strategy Map.
If all three of these components (Strategy Map, KPIs and Action Plan) are in place then a BSC can transform an organisation. For me it is the No 1 strategy execution tool because it allows organisation to depict and communicate their strategic plan in a very simple and graphical way as well as monitor and manage the delivery of the plan.
So why are so many of the scorecards in use today not as effective as they could be? The reasons for this are that companies take short cuts or forget vital components when developing their own BSC. Here are some of the key pitfalls I see in practice:
Not having buy-in and understanding of the tool across the company before you implement it.
Starting the BSC development with metrics and KPIs instead of the strategy. Measures cannot be relevant if they are not firmly based on the strategic objectives. The Strategy Map is the first and most important component of any BSC, KPIs follow once the strategy is clear.
Using the generic strategy map as a template you simply populate or copying a strategy map from another company. A strategy map has to be a unique representation of your company’s strategic objectives at this point in time. It has to be developed with close senior executive engagement and represent the distinctive challenges of your company.
Not revising and refreshing the Strategy Map, KPIs or Action Plans. We all know that your company’s priorities shift over time and therefore the Strategy Map, KPIs and Action Plans have to reflect that.
Only using oversimplified KPIs to track progress. It is important that the KPIs help to track your strategic objectives but instead of developing the most relevant KPIs companies often chose the ones that are most easy to measure or the ones everyone else seems to be tracking. More effort has to go into developing truly relevant and meaningful KPIs.
Not having an Action Plan linked to the BSC. A strategy without a plan to deliver it will always remain a trip to fairly land!
As always, I am interested to hear from you and your experiences and thoughts. Do you work in a company that uses a scorecard well or are you among the many that experience the effects of sub-optimal scorecards? Is there anything you would add? Any stories to share?Please do so.
Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) should be the vital navigation instruments used by managers and leaders to understand whether they are on course to success or not. The right set of KPIs will shine light on performance and highlight areas that need attention. Without the right KPIs managers are flying blind, a bit like a pilot without instruments.
The problem is that most companies collect and report a vast amount of everything that is easy to measure and as a consequence their managers end up drowning in data while thirsting for insights.
Effective managers understand the key performance dimensions of their business by distilling them down into the critical KPIs. This is a bit like a doctor who takes measures such as heart rate, cholesterol levels, blood pressure and blood tests to check the health of their patients.
In order to identify the right KPIs for any business it is important to be clear about the objectives and strategic directions. Remember, navigation instruments are only useful if we know where we want to go. Therefore, first define the strategy and then closely link our KPIs to the objectives.
I believe KPIs have to be developed uniquely to fit the information needs of a company. However, what I have leant over many years of helping companies and government organizations with their performance management and business intelligence is that there are some important (and innovative) KPIs everyone should know about. They will give you a solid base of knowledge. However, there will be other, more specialized measures designed for your specific strategy or industry context. Take for example the network performance KPIs for a telecom operator or the quality indicators for healthcare providers. These will have to be included in your list of KPIs but will not be found in the list below, at least not in their industry-specific format.
The list of 75 KPIs includes the metrics I consider the most important and informative and they make a good starting point for the development of a performance management system. Before we look at the list I would like to express an important warning: Don’t just pick all 75 – You don't need or indeed should have all 75 KPIs. Instead, by understanding these 75 KPIs you will be able to pick the vital few meaningful indicators that are relevant for your business. Finally, the KPIs should then be used (and owned) by everyone in the business to inform decision-making (and not as mindless reporting references or as 'carrot & stick tools').
To measure financial performance:
1. Net Profit
2. Net Profit Margin
3. Gross Profit Margin
4. Operating Profit Margin
6. Revenue Growth Rate
7. Total Shareholder Return (TSR)
8. Economic Value Added (EVA)
9. Return on Investment (ROI)
10. Return on Capital Employed (ROCE)
11. Return on Assets (ROA)
12. Return on Equity (ROE)
13. Debt-to-Equity (D/E) Ratio
14. Cash Conversion Cycle (CCC)
15. Working Capital Ratio
16. Operating Expense Ratio (OER)
17. CAPEX to Sales Ratio
18. Price Earnings Ratio (P/E Ratio)
To understand your customers:
19. Net Promoter Score (NPS)
20. Customer Retention Rate
21. Customer Satisfaction Index
22. Customer Profitability Score
23. Customer Lifetime Value
24. Customer Turnover Rate
25. Customer Engagement
26. Customer Complaints
To gauge your market and marketing efforts:
27. Market Growth Rate
28. Market Share
29. Brand Equity
30. Cost per Lead
31. Conversion Rate
32. Search Engine Rankings (by keyword) and click-through rate
33. Page Views and Bounce Rate
34. Customer Online Engagement Level
35. Online Share of Voice (OSOV)
36. Social Networking Footprint
37. Klout Score
To measure your operational performance:
38. Six Sigma Level
39. Capacity Utilisation Rate (CUR)
40. Process Waste Level
41. Order Fulfilment Cycle Time
42. Delivery In Full, On Time (DIFOT) Rate
43. Inventory Shrinkage Rate (ISR)
44. Project Schedule Variance (PSV)
45. Project Cost Variance (PCV)
46. Earned Value (EV) Metric
47. Innovation Pipeline Strength (IPS)
48. Return on Innovation Investment (ROI2)
49. Time to Market
50. First Pass Yield (FPY)
51. Rework Level
52. Quality Index
53. Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)
54. Process or Machine Downtime Level
55. First Contact Resolution (FCR)
To understand your employees and their performance:
56. Human Capital Value Added (HCVA)
57. Revenue Per Employee
58. Employee Satisfaction Index
59. Employee Engagement Level
60. Staff Advocacy Score
61. Employee Churn Rate
62. Average Employee Tenure
63. Absenteeism Bradford Factor
64. 360-Degree Feedback Score
65. Salary Competitiveness Ratio (SCR)
66. Time to Hire
67. Training Return on Investment
To measure your environmental and social sustainability performance:
68. Carbon Footprint
69. Water Footprint
70. Energy Consumption
71. Saving Levels Due to Conservation and Improvement Efforts
72. Supply Chain Miles
73. Waste Reduction Rate
74. Waste Recycling Rate
75. Product Recycling Rate
What do you think? Do you find this list useful? Are there others you would add? Or do you have wider comments on KPIs and how they are used?